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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Saddle Hill Trust lot 36"

t 1-22: SolAI^/103? - 1^/64 







SOLAR/1038-79/04 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 

SADDLE HILL TRUST 

LOT 36 

APRIL 1979 



U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



.NOTICE. 



This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 

SADDLE HILL TRUST 
LOT 36 

APRIL 1979 

I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

Saddle Hill Trust Lot 36 is a single-family residence in Medway, Massachusetts. 
Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot 
water (DHW). The system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross 
area of 315 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 58 degrees to 
the horizontal. A 60 percent glycerol solution is the transfer medium that 
delivers solar energy from the collector array to storage; water is the 
transfer medium that delivers solar energy from storage to the space heating 
and hot water loads. Solar energy is stored in the basement in a 750-gallon 
storage tank. The tank is made of steel and lined with polyurethane. Preheated 
city water is supplied, on demand, to a conventional 80-gallon DHW tank. 
When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, an oil 
furnace provides auxiliary energy for space heating. Similarly, a conventional 
electric 80-gallon DHW heater provides auxiliary energy for water heating. 
The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has three modes of solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector-to-Storage : This mode activates when the collector tempera- 
ture is either more than 40°F higher than storage temperature or higher than 
150°F. Pump PI is on. Solar energy transfer takes place through a heat 
exchanger located inside the storage tank. 

Mode 2 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when there is a 
demand for space heating, storage temperature is 70°F or higher, and house 
temperature is lower than storage temperature. Pump P3 is on. Solar energy 
transfer takes place through a heat exchanger located inside the air duct. 

Mode 3 - Storage-to-DHW Tank : This mode activates when storage water is 5°F 
higher than water in the DHW tank. Pump P2 is on. Solar energy transfer 
takes place through a heat exchanger located inside the DHW heater. 

II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 

INTRODUCTION 

The site was occupied in April and the solar energy system operated continuously 
during the month. Solar energy satisfied 69 percent of the DHW requirements 
and 20 percent of the space heating requirements. The solar energy system 
provided an electrical energy savings of 2.1 million Btu and fossil fuel 
energy savings of 1.8 million Btu. 



1 4270 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 11.1 
million Btu for a daily average of 1178 Btu per square foot. This was below 
the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area 
during April of 1230 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt 
of 58 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during 
April was 47°F as compared with the long-term average for April of 49°F. The 
number of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 
546, as compared with the long-term average of 492. 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During April the solar energy system performed somewhat poorer than 
expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified f-chart 
analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as inputs. Solar energy 
collected was 4.3 million Btu versus an estimated 5.2 million Btu. Solar 
energy used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy collected 
would be applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 3.4 million Btu. 
System total solar fraction was 30 percent versus an estimated 59 percent. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of April was 11.1 million Btu. During the period the collector loop 
was operating, the total insolation amounted to 8.6 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of April was 4.3 million Btu, resulting 
in a collector array efficiency of 38 percent, based on total incident insola- 
tion. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 4.3 
million Btu. There was no measured energy loss during transfer from the 
collector array to storage. Operating energy required by the collector loop 
was 0.098 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 4.3 million Btu. There were 
3.4 million Btu delivered from storage to the DHW and space heating subsystems. 
Energy loss from storage was 0.62 million Btu. This loss represented 14 
percent of the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 86 
percent: This is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed 
from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to 
storage. The average storage temperature for the month was 115°F. 

DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed 2.4 million Btu of solar energy and 1.0 
million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy a hot water load of 1.2 
million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 69 percent. Losses from 
the DHW subsystem were 2.2 million Btu. The DHW subsystem consumed a total 
of 0.17 million Btu of operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy 
savings of 2.2 million Btu. A daily average of 53 gallons of DHW were consumed 
at an average temperature of 138°F delivered from the tank. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem consumed 1.1 million Btu of 
solar energy and 7.0 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel energy to satisfy a 
space heating load of 5.3 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 



20 percent. The space heating subsystem consumed a total of 1.8 million Btu 
of operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy expense of 0.020 

mi 1 1 i~~ D4-., 



million Btu. 



OBSERVATIONS 

The DHW loop was on continuously throughout the month. This was a prime 
contributor to the 2.2 million Btu energy loss in the DHW system. 

ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a net electrical energy savings of 2.1 
million Btu and a fossil fuel energy savings of 1.8 million Btu. The DHW 
subsystem provided an electrical energy savings of 2.2 million Btu, while the 
space heating subsystem provided a fossil fuel energy savings of 1.8 million 
Btu and incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.020 million Btu. 

III. ACTION STATUS 

The system designer is investigating DHW subsystem operation. 



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